Klima, Energie und Umwelt

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Maike Lukow Redakteurin für entwicklungspolitische Publikationen

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Analysis 87 Climate Risk Financing

This paper presents and discusses new and established climate risk financing instruments and approaches and how they could better contribute to closing the protection gap in vulnerable countries. It provides information and new ideas to civil society organizations and policymakers who are engaged in the broader debate on finding financing solutions to compensate climate-induced loss and damage following the principles of equity and climate justice. A further aim is to address knowledge gaps and misconceptions about what can be expected and what cannot be expected from risk financing instruments. It is an analytical paper, presenting fact-findings and some recommendations derived fromresearch, but it is not a policy paper.

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Analysis 86 Limiting Global Warming to 1.5°C - The Climate Risks and Irreversible Losses We Must Avoid

The world is at crossroads. Awareness is growing rapidly that overshooting the aspirational goal of the Paris Agreement to limit global warming to 1.5°C would severely jeopardise the achievement of the SDGs, making the poor poorer, and causing increasing inequalities, conflicts and humanitarian catastrophes. The IPCC Special Report Global Warming of 1.5°C was the first to systematically examine the links between different scenarios of global warming and sustainable development. Our report summarises the main facts and trends identified by the IPCC’s special report and other leading scientific literature. We focus on showing the key risks and the possible differences between a 1.5°C and a 2°C world. We tell the stories of vulnerable communities in the low-lying island state of Tuvalu and drought-prone Ethiopia, and describe what they do and what they need if they are not to be left behind. We discuss policy options for 1.5°C consistent pathways in the context of sustainable development, cover mitigation and transformational adaptation.

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Analysis 71 Sustainable Energy is 100% Renewable

The Sustainable Energy for All (SEforALL) initiative was launched by the UN in 2011. It pledged to ensure universal access to modern energy services, double the rate of improvement in energy efficiency and double the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix by 2030. This report presents a summary of the initiative’s structural shortcomings as highlighted by previous studies. It examines the SEforALL Action Agendas of eight African countries and the Investment Prospectuses of three of them. Lastly, policy recommendations to improve the initiative are presented.

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Aktuell 63: Klimawandel - Herausforderung für den Fairen Handel

Keine soziale Gerechtigkeit ohne Klimagerechtigkeit.

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Analyse 77 Anpassung an den Klimawandel

Der Klimawandel macht Entwicklungsländern besonders zu schaffen. Eine Anpassung an die Veränderungen kann ihnen helfen, doch dafür brauchen sie finanzielle Unterstützung. Deutschland hat hier eine besondere Verantwortung – und deutlichen Verbesserungsbedarf, wie die Analyse zeigt.

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Analyse 76 Non-Economic Loss And Damage

With case examples from Tanzania, Ethiopia, El Salvador and Bangladesh. This discussion paper demonstrates that climate-induced non-economic loss and damage (NELD) includes forms of damage that cannot be measured or compensated financially. It includes loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services, land, territories, artefacts, life, health, knowledge, social cohesion, identity, and sovereignty, and it ultimately causes migration and displacement. NELD is a relatively new concept and very little academic research has been conducted on it until now. This paper describes the lessons learned regarding the community based method that enabled NELD to be identified, evaluated and registered for the presented case reports. The paper concludes with eight policy recommendations directed at WIM and stakeholders at the national level, which built on the main findings and are aimed at better understanding, addressing and minimizing NELD.

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Aktuell 62 Was beim Klimagipfel auf dem Spiel steht

Vom 6. bis 17. November kommen die Vertragsstaaten der Klimarahmenkonvention 2017 zum 23. Mal zu einem Weltklimagipfel (COP23) in Bonn zusammen. Die Präsidentschaft der diesjährigen Vertragsstaatenkonferenz hat der pazifische Inselstaat Fidschi inne. Somit sitzt zum ersten Mal in der 23-jährigen Geschichte von UN-Klimagipfeln ein kleiner Inselstaat an der Spitze der Verhandlungen.

Damit Fidschi in diesem Jahr die Präsidentschaft übernehmen kann, wurde als Austragungsort Bonn, Sitz des UN-Klimasekretariats, festgelegt. Die Präsidentschaft der COP23 muss wichtige Verhandlungsprozesse weiter voran bringen, damit das Pariser Klimaabkommen seine richtige Wirkung entfalten kann. Viele technische Details müssen geklärt werden, denn das Abkommen selbst bietet lediglich einen Rahmen, der jetzt weiter ausgefüllt werden muss. In der Publikation legt Brot für die Welt seine Erwartungen an den 23. Weltklimagipfel der Vereinten Nationen dar.

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Analysis 73 Protected against climate damage?

The poorest and most vulnerable are neither adequately protected against the impact of climate change nor are they being relieved of the burden by those responsible. This is not only unjust; it is a scandal. However, it was not until the 2015 Paris Agreement that a global institutional framework for the collective management of climate risks and climate-related loss and damage was concluded. Despite its importance, there are gaps in the Paris Agreement. Although climate-related loss and damage is recognised within its scope, and the Agreement also provides the Warsaw International Mechanism with a mandate to develop solutions to loss and damage, it does not define any specific commitments on the levels of financing that will be needed to implement these measures.

Civil society has often been critical towards the introduction of climate risk insurance. Although insurance is not enough to gain justice, it can help to fight against the growing levels of poverty that are being caused by climate-related loss and damage, and to close the gaps in protection. However, in order to do so, insurance must form part of a broad resilience strategy that complements – without seeking to replace – social protection systems and humanitarian aid.

This publication aims to provide a constructive contribution to a debate that has become ever more significant. It particularly stresses the importance of climate risk insurance and discusses the opportunities and limitations of insurance, particularly in the face of demands for climate justice and the fight against poverty, as well as the debates on vulnerability and resilience.

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Policy Brief InsuResilience

In autumn 2015, the international community drew up 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). These were followed by National Action Plans established at the national level to ensure the goals could be achieved by 2030. However, climate change now stands in the path of achieving the SDGs and will specifically affect the poorest populations in the countries that are most at risk from climate change. Although extreme weather events such as tropical storms, droughts and floods threaten these people’s harvests, income and livelihoods, climate risk insurance can help to reduce their vulnerability. In the event of a disaster, insurance can quickly provide funds to help the injured parties deal with their situation as well as to bolster emergency responses and strengthen social protection systems. Despite the opportunities it provides, climate risk insurance has yet to be implemented widely in developing countries. The InsuResilience initiative, which was founded in 2015 during the German G7 presidency, is an attempt to change this situation. Bread for the World and ACT Alliance recommend that the German government and the G20 turn insurance into an effective mechanism to better protect poor and vulnerable populations against risks associated with climate change.

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Analyse 73 Abgesichert gegen Klimaschäden?

Dass besonders die ärmsten und verletzlichsten Menschen und Staaten weder ausreichend vor den Folgen des Klimawandels geschützt sind noch bei klimabedingten Schäden von den Verursachern entlastet werden, ist ein Gerechtigkeitsskandal. Zwar erkennt das Pariser Abkommen klimabedingte Schäden als Gegenstandsbereich an, jedoch beinhaltet das Abkommen keine Zusagen über den finanziellen Umfang für die Umsetzung dieses Auftrags. Noch dazu schreibt Paragraph 52 des Pariser Beschlusses fest, dass das Klimaabkommen keine Grundlage für Haftungs- und Kompensationsansprüche bietet. Bieten Klimariskoversicherungen da Abhilfe? Ihre Einführung wird in der Zivilgesellschaft durchaus kritisch diskutiert. Für sich allein können sie gewiss keine Klimagerechtigkeit schaffen, allerdings können sie dazu beitragen, wachsende Armut in Folge klimabedingter Schäden und Verluste zu bekämpfen und Schutzlücken zu schließen. Oberstes Prinzip muss sein, dass Klimarisikoversicherungen auf die Bedürfnisse der Ärmsten zugeschnitten werden. Ihre Finanzierung muss sichergestellt und fair geregelt sein. Die Klimarisikoversicherungs-Initiative „InsuResilience“ ebenso wie die jetzt angestrebte „Globale Partnerschaft für Risikofinanzierung und Risikoversicherung“ sind erste Schritte dahin. 

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